How to write a systematic review protocol

Such effects models are thus recommended when accumulating data from a series of studies where the effect size is assumed to vary from one study to the next and where it is unlikely that studies are functionally equivalent [ 33 ].

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Included studies will be manually screened in order to select other relevant studies. It is likely that most associations reported in primary studies will be based on self-report data based on the self-administered questionnaires.

The systematic procedure substantiates that the literature search comprises all published studies on the relationship between workplace bullying and different sleep parameters.

To be included in the meta-analytic part of the study, studies should provide the zero-order associations between bullying and sleep or provide sufficient information for these associations effect sizes to be calculated.

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According to CATS, cognitive activation is a key factor in the cycle of emotional and physiologic arousal on sleep, and an extensive body of research has shown that cognitive activation is associated with persistent high stress levels and pathology, such as decreased sleep quality, increased cortisol levels, elevated heart rate, and increased mortality [ 1819 ].

In studies reporting effect sizes from independent subgroups e. Accordingly, data based on conference abstracts, dissertations, and gray literature e.

Systematic review template

First of all, the unpublished studies that can be located are likely to be an unrepresentative sample of all unpublished studies. For instance, the identification of unpublished studies may depend on the willingness of investigators of unpublished studies to provide data. Although negative social interactions at the workplace, such as bullying, may be especially distressing for those exposed [ 4 , 5 ], previous research on psychosocial work environment factors and sleep has mainly been limited to examining the impact of job demands and control [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress CATS [ 18 ] has been suggested as a theoretical framework for how exposure to bullying could influence sleep [ 4 ]. For instance, in a mixed method study on workplace bullying among university employees, insomnia was reported by practically all cases interviewed [ 16 ]. Participants The study population will be adults 18 years or older with a current or previous employment in a full or part-time position. Once it is registered, it also serves as a notification of your plans to other researchers, so that no one will attempt the same project. Secondly, unpublished studies may be of lower methodological quality than published studies. In contrast to some other meta-analytic methods, such as the Hunter and Schmidt approach [ 32 ], which weights studies by sample size, the Comprehensive Meta-analysis program weights studies by inverse variance.

Consequently, there is a shortage of knowledge about how and when social problems, such as exposure to workplace bullying, influence sleep. However, there may be individual differences in responses to bullying, and some workers may be more able to cope with the exposure compared to others [ 20 ].

Prisma systematic review

A secondary aim of the study is therefore to review and summarize research on such mediating and moderating factors affecting the relationship between workplace bullying and sleep. It is expected that your research question may evolve somewhat in the early stages of your search process. This increase in arousal as a response to stressful situations may prolong physiological activation which subsequently can be manifested through difficulties in sleep initiation or returning to sleep after awakenings during the night. Included studies will be manually screened in order to select other relevant studies. Planning is also a good way to avoid bias in your research. Using this approach, effect sizes that fell outside the 95th confidence interval of the average effect size will be considered as outliers. The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress CATS [ 18 ] has been suggested as a theoretical framework for how exposure to bullying could influence sleep [ 4 ]. A third reviewer may be consulted if necessary. Consequently, there is a shortage of knowledge about how and when social problems, such as exposure to workplace bullying, influence sleep. In studies reporting effect sizes from independent subgroups e. Both bullying and sleep can be considered as modifiable factors that, if assessed and promptly recognized, can be addressed, potentially preventing the development of further health problems. According to CATS, cognitive activation is a key factor in the cycle of emotional and physiologic arousal on sleep, and an extensive body of research has shown that cognitive activation is associated with persistent high stress levels and pathology, such as decreased sleep quality, increased cortisol levels, elevated heart rate, and increased mortality [ 18 , 19 ]. This system grades quality of evidence at four levels: high 4 , moderate 3 , low 2 , and very low 1. The two reviewers will independently conduct the data extraction from each study using a pre-defined data extraction sheet. For observational studies, moderate evidence, i.

Apr-Jun Reference lists of key full text articles included in the review will be checked to identify any potentially eligible studies. At the second step, full-text versions of selected papers will be examined and assessed with regard to effect sizes and methodological quality.

Cochrane systematic review protocol example

For more information about defining your research question, check out this video tutorial, part one of a series on Evidence Based Practice: Video opens in a new tab. The searches will not be limited by historical time-constraints. This increase in arousal as a response to stressful situations may prolong physiological activation which subsequently can be manifested through difficulties in sleep initiation or returning to sleep after awakenings during the night. The meta-analysis will include studies with cross-sectional designs, and the aggregated effect sizes will therefore not account for the cause and effect relationship between the included variables. To avoid double-counting data, the sample in a given study should not have been used in a previous study of those included in the review. PROSPERO - International prospective register of systematic reviews Once you have written a draft of your protocol, have it peer reviewed by someone outside of your research team. Secondly, unpublished studies may be of lower methodological quality than published studies. In short, persistent exposure to stressors leads to increased arousal. Following the description by Lipsey and Wilson [ 25 ], the coding form will assess information about bullying and sleep, demographic characteristics of participants age, gender, job type, employment status, educational level, etc.
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