The course of the development of alternative energy technology to fossil fuels
The latter is done primarily through photovoltaic PV systems. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today;  examples include forest residues such as dead trees, branches and tree stumpsyard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste.
Finally, having a clean environmental profile enhances the attractiveness of renewable projects in the eyes of investors, especially the multilateral development agencies, many of whom operate under guidelines that require the promotion of non-polluting technologies.
Policies and Actions 60The energy challenges that developing countries face are significant and increasing. Over time, energy end-use technologies e. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the specific number for external costs that should be assigned to any technology.
Can alternative energy replace fossil fuels pros and cons
The World Bank has concluded that incentives are usually required to motivate the private sector to invest in providing services to the remote and underdeveloped areas where the poor reside. There are six broad categories of renewable energy technologies. This has helped them to become competitive with coal-fired power stations in many countries that regulate conventional pollutant emissions. Meanwhile, reliance on traditional fuels, such as wood, can produce its own adverse impacts. Energy efficiency 64Assessments of the cost of mitigating climate-change consistently find that energy efficiency improvements offer the largest and least costly emissions-reduction potential, while providing such important ancillary benefits as energy cost savings, reductions in emissions of conventional pollutants, a reduction in the dependence on imported fuels and improved economic competitiveness. There are some wind generator products, however, specifically designed for mounting on buildings. To ensure that rural areas of developing countries do not become graveyards for sustainable energy technologies, sustained attention must be paid by both host and donor nations to the human and institutional capacities needed to support these technologies on a long-term basis UNDP, , p. The prospects for continued cost reductions are promising in view of the recent rapid growth in renewable energy markets. Newer technologies, combined with higher energy rates, allow smaller-scale, distributed cogeneration to be more cost effective in some buildings or campuses. Waste oils were one of the first targets for biodiesel manufacturers. None are easy to implement. In most situations and all countries, it is essential to have programs that promote more efficient use of energy G-8 RETF, , p. This closed carbon cycle, however, does not necessarily include any energy needed to cultivate, harvest, and process the biomass. It has been estimated that basic household services, along with commercial and community activities e.
Government-imposed costs. Energy-related emissions from power plants, automobiles, heavy equipment and industrial facilities are largely responsible—especially in major cities—for levels of ambient air pollution that routinely exceed the health thresholds set by many developed countries, and sometimes by an order of magnitude.
based on 65 review